Parsa Conservation Project
Parsa Wildlife Reserve is located in the south-central lowland Terai of Nepal. The 499 km2 of pristine sub-tropical jungle makes Parsa Nepal's largest wildlife reserve. Once this area served as a vacation site for the Rana Rulers of the country. In 1984, it was gazetted as a wildlife reserve to preserve the habitat for wild Asian elephant, and a variety of other fauna- It is contiguous with Chitwan National Park in the west.
The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates, making it susceptible to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry streambeds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km. from the hills base. The Churia hill range from 750m to 950m running east to west.
Winter (October-December) provide pleasant temperatures with clear skies. Nighttime temperatures can drop to 0°C. During spring (January-March) temperatures rise and water becomes scarce. During summer (April-June) the days become hot and humid with temperatures rising up to -40°C. Monsoon (July-September) brings cooling rains.
The forests are mainly composed of tropical and subtropical species. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the reserve's vegetation. Along the banks of the rivers, riverine forests are found containing species like Khair and Silk cotton tree. In the north-eastern part of the reserve, at higher altitudes, Sal and Pine forests are occurring. On the southern slope of the Siwalik hills, the forests are dominated by pine. Sabai grass is commercially important species, grows well on the southern face of the Churia hills.
The reserve supports good populations of various endangered species include wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Sloth bear, and Leopard. Blue bull, Sambar, Chital, Hog deer, Barding deer, Langur, Rhesus macaques, striped hyena, Jungle cat, and Palm civet are also found in the reserve.
The reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds. For example White breasted kingfisher, Paradise flycatcher, Large racquet-tailed drongo, Golden backed woodpecker, etc are some of the common sights. Giant hornbill, one of the endangered bird species is found in some forest patches. The reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes include common Cobra, Common and banded Karit, Python and King cobra